National Costume Archive

Glossary of Terms

Special thanks to Kati Reeder Meek for allowing us to base our glossary on the exhaustive research she did for the glossary of her book REFLECTIONS FROM A FLAXEN PAST, For Love Of Lithuanian Weaving


English Lithuanian Definition
ACID DYES rūgštiniai dažai Synthetic dyes that combine with the fibres in an acid dye-bath.
ALUM alūnas Potassium aluminum sulfate, alum, a mordant.
AMBER gintaras A mineral of organic origin. Formed from the resin of pine trees in the Early Tertiary Period, Paleogene, about sixty million years ago.  “Jewel of the Baltic”, “Baltic Gold”, worn as beads or brooches with national costume.
ANILINE DYES anilino dažai First synthetic dyes, so named because they are produced from aniline, a coal-tar product.
APRON prijuostė The most decorative part of a woman’s festive dress, worn over  the front of a skirt and distinctive by region.
ARC puslankis Curving or slanting of the weft in the shed so it will be relaxed and not pull in at the sides when beaten.
BACK BEAM galinis skersbalkis, galinis skersinis balkis
BACKGROUND or GROUND fonas, pagrindas, dugnas The principal part of the web which is formed by plain weave for the pattern.
BACKSTRAP WEAVING audimas prisirišus prie juosmens Primitive weaving with a strap around weaver’s body to hold warp in tension.
BALANCED TWILL or WEAVE miliškas arba sugretintas audimas Weaving or plaiting structure in 2-2 twill. Weave structure in which warp and weft are similar in size and spacing.
BAND juostelė, rištuvas, raištis A narrow tie or band, with or without a pattern, used mainly for tying.
BANDLOOM juostelių staklelės A tool for weaving, when the rigid heddle is mounted in a frame.
BAST karna The inner bark of a tree.
BAST SHOES vyžos The early, everyday shoe, plaited from the inner bark of the linden tree; tied on after  strips of coarse linen or wool are wrapped around the foot.
BATTEN plaktuvėlis, medinis peilis Flat stick with one or both edges sharpened to hold shed open on primitive looms and used to beat weft into place in the web.
BEAM APRON medžiaga pridėta prie metmenų  ar audeklo volo Cloth beam apron with a pocket for the cloth rod where the warp is anchored to the front of the loom.
BEATER muštuvas Batten, lay, reed frame; provides the force to pack the weft into the warp on a loom. A knife-like device or edge of the shuttle is used in narrow sash weaving.
BEDSPREADS, COVERLETS, BLANKETS  lovatiesės, antklodės
BEETLE, MALLET FLAIL kultuvė A pounding device or hand-held beater for washing clothes, often decoratively carved as a gift.
BELT or SASH juosta A band that is braided, plaited or woven and worn with the national costume or everyday dress.
BELT SHUTTLE trumpa ištisinė šaudyklėlė su vienu aštriu pakraščiu ataudams primušti A short stick shuttle with one sharpened edge for beating weft.
BLEACHING balinimas A physical or chemical process which removes or destroys pigment in yarn. Exposure to sun with birch ashes or with chemical bleach.
BLOCK rašto dalis A group of warp and weft yarns making a design in the weave.
BLUESTONE or BLUE VITRIOL melynasis akmenėlis Used in dyeing and as a whitener. Copper sulfate.
BOBBIN šeiva, špūlė, ritė
BOBBIN LACE pynikas An open-design cloth constructed by twisting or plaiting yarn, often used to decorate the ends of towels. Later replaced with crocheted edgings.
BODICE or VEST liemenė(lė), kiklikas A woman’s sleeveless, tight-fitting garment or vest, extending to the waist or below the waist.
BOOTS auliniai batai High leather footwear.
BORDER,  SELVAGE kraštas, pakraštys
BOUND-WEAVE sumuštinė 
BRAIDED SASH pynelė A narrow braided sash or braid pattern.
BRAIDING, BOBBIN LACE, KNOTTING, DIAGONAL INTERLACING OR YARN FINGER WEAVING pynimas Wide, elaborate, decorative bands made of warp-ends, at the ends of 19th century display towels.
BRAIDING, FINGER WEAVING pynimas Diagonal or oblique interlacing of three or more strands of yarn.
BRAIDS, PLAITS, OR TWISTED CORD pintos arba vytos virvutės Trimming used to fasten or decorate garments.
BREAKING mynimas Cracking the woody bark and loosening it from the flax fibre after retting.
BROCADE, FREE WEAVE, OVERLAY kaišytinis A weave structure in which there are two wefts, a structural one and a decorative one, that float back and forth over yarns in the pattern area only.
BUTTERFLY sruogelė A small skein of yarn made by winding a figure eight on the index and thumb of one hand; used in place of a shuttle for short spans of weaving.
BUTTONS, TOGGLES brankteliai
CAP kepuraitė A woman’s linen or cotton headdress, sometimes a boy’s cap.
CAP, NETTED čepčius A crocheted cap.
CARD or TABLET WEAVING vytinis audimas A unique process of weaving in which individual warp yarns are threaded through holes in a set of cards or tablets which are turned to form the different sheds.
CARD-WOVEN SASH vytinė juosta
CARDING karšimas The process of combing out fibres in preparation for spinning.
CASE or COVER apvalkalas, užvalkalas For a pillow, duvet, or comforter.
CHAINED WARP metmenų pynė A warp that has been wound (warped) on a board, frame or warping mill, and removed in the form of a chain for easy handling.
CHECKERED languotas
CHEVIOT ševiotas A breed of sheep.
CHEVRON or DIAMOND TWILL grąžytinis Diamond twill weave which forms a raised pattern.
CIRCLET graželis, lankelis A narrow band woven in gold or silver and worn around the head. A girl’s headdress.
CLOTH BEAM audeklo velenas The roller at the free of the loom that gives tension to the warp yarn and where the woven cloth is held.
CLOTH, FABRIC, or WEB audeklas Any hand-woven material or the part of weaving that has become cloth.
COCHINEAL raudoni dažai Brilliant red dye, consisting of the dried bodies of the insect coccus cacti.
COLOUR spalva The names of colours are often misleading and vary with nearly every producer of dyes and paints. Ostwald, according to his colour theory, places all colours in the order of the rainbow on a circle.
COLOURFAST neblunkanti spalva Non-fading yarn.
COMBING, HACKLING šukavimas To prepare long fibres for spinning. A process similar to carding and used only with long fibres of flax and wool.
COMBINGS pašukos Short fibres combed out of flax or wool.
COPPER SULFATE, see also BLUE VITRIOL or BLUESTONE vario vitriolis A metallic salt used as a mordant in natural dyeing to obtain darker colours.
COTTON medvilnė Fibre of the cotton plant.
COVER, PILLOW CASE, see CASE užvalkalas
CREAM OF TARTAR kalio hidrotartratas Potassium bitartrate, a household chemical used as a mordant in natural dyeing. Often used in combination with other mordants.
CROCHETING nėrimas A single-thread textile craft in which one forms or decorates a fabric by making a chain of loops with a crochet hook and building patterns with additional loops.
CROSS IN THE WARP sukryžiavimas Crossing the warp yarns to keep them in order.
CROWN karūna, galionas, graiželis, pakalkė, rangė Wreath-like girl’s headdress.
CUTWORK kiauraraštis Openwork embroidery, a cut-out design outlined in thread.
DAMASK atlasinis A self-patterned reversible linen cloth with satin weave blocks, having a different pattern on each side.
DENT tarpdantis The opening or single space in the reed through which the warp ends are drawn in sleying.
DIAMOND or RHOMBUS lygiagretainis, rombas A diagonal square or a rhombus pattern often seen in textiles from the Vilnius region. An element of a pattern in which the figure has equal straight sides.
DIAPER TWILL ruoželinis A geometric pattern woven in twill technique of two tones or a solid colour.
DISTAFF verpstė Support for fibres prepared for spinning while using a spindle. Also verpstas or prieverpstė, the distaff attached to a spinning wheel.
DOUBLE-FACED WEAVE dvigubinis audimas Any weave which produces a sash with each side of the weave in  a different colour.
DOUBLE WARP BEAM dveji metmenų velenai Two separate warp beams at the back of a treadle loom for different warp tensions.
DOUBLING dvigubinimas Twisting together of two, three or four yarns. This can be done on a spinning wheel or spindle.
DOUP pusnytė A doup or half-heddle used for plain or pattern weaving.
DRAFT brėžinys A drawing on ruled paper of the pattern or design to be used in threading the loom.
DRAW DOWN rašto (suvėrimo) piešinys Graphic representation of the cloth pattern.
DYEBATH dažynė The water and dye mixture in which yarn is submerged for dyeing.
DYEING dažymas A process which leaves a certain amount of colour (pigment) in the yarn.
DYES dažai Either natural (plant, animal, mineral) or chemical colouring.
ECRU gelsva Natural unbleached color, generally light beige; also pale yellow.
EDGING apvedžiojimas Narrow sashes, twisted cord, bands or plaited yarn sewn around the edges of a garment as an adornment.
EIGHT-SHAFT TWILL DIAPER WEAVE aštuonianyčiai ruoželiniai Using 2 blocks of 4-shaft twill to make a pattern that is overall, small and geometric.
EIGHT-SHAFT DAMASK aštuonianyčiai atlasiniai Using 2 blocks of false satin weaving alternately warp faced and weft faced.
END metmens galas An individual warp thread. Single strand of warp yarn.
EVERLASTING (FLOWER), CAT’S PAW katpėdėlė A common overshot pattern.
FABRIC audeklas A handwoven cloth.
FACINGS antsiuvas A distinctive trimming of rich fur or cloth used for garments.
FAST COLOUR neblunkanti spalva Colour dye that does not fade in water or light.
FERROUS SULFATE geležies žalsvas akrnenėlis A metallic salt used as a mordant in natural dyeing.
FIBRE plauštas
FILAMENT siūlelis A long, fine, continuous fibre, natural or synthetic.
FILLING pripildymas The crosswise element of yarn or yarns (weft) which interlaces at right angles with the warp.
FINGER WEAVE parinkimas pirštais arba skalele The same as pick-up, or overlay.
FIVE-BLOCK WEAVING PATTERN penkių dalių Five-block structure requires 25 shafts.
FLAT WOODEN STICK balana, balanėlė Used behind the shafts, turned on edge, to open sheds through the eyes of the heddles enabling the shuttle to insert supplemental pattern wefts.
FLAX linas A bast fibre plant which is used to make linen thread for cloth.
FLAX COMB šepetys Flax comb with iron teeth.
FLOAT, OVERSHOT pluoštelis, pluoštinis, diminis A group of warp or weft threads that are not interlaced with each other. Also pluošotinis, floats, as in overshot weaving.
FLOATING WARP or SELVAGE papildomai laisvas metmuo Extra warp at the selvage not threaded into heddles.
FOUR-BLOCK WEAVING PATTERN keturių dalių May require 16 shafts if structure uses 4 shafts per block.
FOUR-SHAFT LOOM keturnytės staklės A loom with heddles mounted on four frames.
FRAME rėmas
FRAME LOOM rėminės staklės A square wooden frame for sash weaving.
FREE WEAVING laisvas audimas Embroidery-like woven embellishment unconstrained by the threading in the loom, woven with the pick-up or overlay technique; usually on a tabby ground.
FRINGES kutai A border on a finished sash or article made from the warp or weft, or attached separately from different yarn.
FROGS, TOGGLES kuteliai Short tassels at the ends of ornamental fastenings for a man’s coat or vest.
FRONT BEAM or BREAST BEAM priekinis (skersinis) balkis
FRONTLET inkaktis A small woven/embroidered piece at the forehead of a woman’s headdress.  A small semicircle in the front of a woman’s headdress.
FRONTPIECE pabriūvėlis



Decorative section at the front of a netted cap.

A band of pleats, ruffles, or pleats at the forehead on a woman’s headdress; sometimes a facing or trimming of fur on a garment.

Woven, patterned headband for married women, worn under a kerchief.

GALLOON galionas A narrow to  wide band woven in linen or cotton with gold or silver threads, usually for an unmarried girl’s crown-like headdress. Also galvos danga.
GAUZY CLOTH ažūrinis audeklas Having lace-like openings.






Open-topped girl’s headdress or crown made of brocade pattern bands.

In Žemaitija, made by braiding sashes or ribbons.


A girl’s headdress in Žemaitija.

GLAUBER’S SALT glauberio druska Chemical that acts as a levelling agent to help make the dyeing uniform.
GOBELIN gobelenas A tapestry technique.
GREATCOAT rudinė Overcoat made of heavy matted woolen cloth.
GROUND dugnas The tabby which forms the background for a pattern weave.
GROUND WARPS dugno metmenys Whenever more than one warp beam is used in one loom. one of the warps is called the ground warp. Other warps are pattern warps.
GROUND WEAVE dugno, fono audimas The main body of the hand-weaving when pattern is added.
GROUND WEFT dugno ataudai The weft of a plain weave.
HACKLING šukavimas Combing the flax fibres and separating it into lengths.
HALF-BLEACHED, CREAM COLOUR pabalinimas Linen yarn that is not completely bleached.
HALF-HEDDLE, SECONDARY HEDDLE,  SEMI-DOUP panyčiai, nytelės, pusnytės A doup of string half-heddles with no eye for pattern weaving; used to lift warps for inserting the weaving stick to make supplemental pattern sheds.
HANDBAG pundinukė



A kerchief tied up to carry personal articles.

In the Klaipėda area, a bag which hangs on the sash under the right side of the apron.

HAND TOWEL rankšluostis Display towel. A patterned linen towel about 16″ x 80″ (41 cm x 200 cm), with decorative edging. Customarily hung on a carved rack in the living area of the home.
HANDKERCHIEF nosinė Embroidered or woven of finest linen or cotton in pick-up pattern.
HARNESS also Shaft nytys rėmuose Frames on which the heddles are hung.
HAT kepurė A man’s round headgear, occasionally with a peak in the center.
HAVING “BEDBUGS” blakytas Small float skips in the cloth from shuttling errors.
HEAD-SCARF skepetaitė, skarelė
HEADBANDS kaktaraiščiai See FRONTLET.
HEADING užaudimas First weaving on the warp to spread and test it.
HEAVY COAT sermėga, surdutas Heavy coat of felted grey wool, often trimmed with dark wool or fur.
HEDDLE nytis A parallel double thread with a loop at the centre through which a warp end is threaded.
HEDDLE nytelė The heart of warp control on a loom, made of strong thread or wire and having a loop at the center through which a warp end is threaded. Hundreds are needed, one for each warp thread.
HEDDLES nytys The parallel vertical cords or wires of a loom through which the warp is threaded to separate, raise or lower the warp.
HEMP kanapės Bast fibre from the plant Cannabis sativa, used for cloth and rope, resistant to rot.
HOMESPUN namie verpta A woven cloth from yarn spun by hand.
HONEYCOMB WEAVE koreliai Producing deep, cell-like texture.
HORIZONTAL LOOM gulsčios staklės Horizontal loom that holds the warp in tension.
HUNDRED-PATTERN SASH šimtaraštė juosta A special form of the pick-up patterned sash from the Baltic coast area of Lithuania Minor.
IKAT tarpsniais dažyti siūlai A skein of yarn dyed at intervals.
INDIGO indigažolė A blue dye obtained from the indigo plant; one of the most colourfast blue dyes known.
INKLE siaura juostelė A narrow band.
INKLE LOOM siauros staklelės A simple, narrow loom for weaving inkles, belts, or sashes.
INTERLINKING OR MESHWORK /  SPRANG tinklinis pynimas Knotless netting in which the adjacent yarns interlink with each other.
JACKET trumpinukė A woman’s tightly fitted outer garment with long sleeves and decorated front, cuffs, collar and pockets.
JACKET rudinukė Short, warm outer garment.
KERCHIEF skarelė / skepetaitė


Small shawl, checkered or embroidered white square scarf for the head.

Square cloth used for covering the head or shoulders.

KNEEBANDS keliaraiščiai A narrow sash or ribbon tied around the leg to hold up stockings.
KNITTING mezgimas A single-yarn textile craft that forms an elastic fabric by looping the yarn within previous loops held in position on a needle.
KNITTING NEEDLE, THREADING HOOK,  SLEY HOOK vąšelis, kablys, siūlams verti į skietą, virbalas
LAM skersinės pakojos Lever connection between loom treadle and shaft.
LARGE WOOL SHAWL skara Folded diagonally and worn over the shoulders or carried folded on the arm.
LATH, LEASE STICK skala Inserted into warp cross to keep threads in order while dressing the loom.
LEASE STICKS, LEASE RODS, SHED OR CROSS STICKS skiemenų skalos, skiemenų rykštės, skiemenų akalos Used in the cross or shed to keep the warp yarns in order while warping the loom.
LENO ryškė A twist of warp threads held in place by a weft thread.
LEVEL or UNIFORM tolygus, lygus Word used to describe the even penetration of dye into material.
LEVER, SWING-BAR or JACK branktas, vogas (zem) Part of the loom that lifts a shaft.
LICHENS kerpės Leafy fungus-like growth on trees or rocks, some varieties of which are useful as dyes; they contain acids so that no mordant is required.
LINEN lininas siūlas arba lininė gija Strong, lustrous yarn spun from flax fibres. The longest flax fibres are called linen or line; these fibres are separated from the shortest tow.
LINEN lininis A cloth woven from linen yarn.


drobulė Sometimes of exquisitely fine thread in 4-, 8- and 12-shaft block weaves; sometimes two narrow strips joined with a lace insert; sometimes with red or blue bands at ends, 70-150 cm x 1.5-3 m long (40-60″ x 60-120″).
LOCKING užpynimas, užrakinimas Locking is obtained by chained two, four or more warps with weft yarn.
LOOM staklės A frame to hold warp ends in tension. A device for weaving.  An arrangement which keeps the warp in proper position during weaving.
MADDER raudė Very colourfast red dye from the roots of the madder plant.
MAN-MADE dirbtinis All textile fibres, excluding natural ones.
MANGLE DRIVER moglis, kočėlas, brūžkos, glostuvai, rumbė, runtė,  kočėklas, kočelienė, valkauninkas (in the Kražiai dialect) The notched board with a handle to roll the cloth, smoothing it prior to drying.

A roller, or rolling press for smoothing and flattening wet linen or other cloth prior to drying.

MERCERIZATION merserizuojimas, perdirbimas A chemical and physical process which makes linen or cotton lustrous and more colourfast.
METALLIC YARN metaliniai siūlai, metalinės gijos Yarn made of metal; either pure or mixed with natural fiber and twisted together.
MINIATURE PATTERN smulkus raštas, raštelis Large pattern reduced to a minute size.
MORDANT įtvirtinąs dažus Any chemical compound which makes dyeing easier, applied before dyeing or added to the natural dye. Most natural dyes require a mordant to fix the dye.
MULTI-COLOUR margas, skaistgija
NARROW SASH / INKLE BAND siaura juostelė
NATURAL gamtinis Colours of fibres that are in their natural undyed state.
NATURAL DYEING gamtinis dažymas Use of many plants, cochineal, shellfish, minerals, and rust which yield dyes that colour fibres in various shades.
NATURAL DYES natūralūs dažai Dyes from natural sources such as plant, vegetable, animal or mineral.
NECKERCHIEF pakaklinė skarelė Linen or cotton cloth worn around the neck as part of a man’s apparel.
NECKTIE kaklaraištis, kaklajuostė A belt, band or sash worn under a shirt collar and tied in front with a knot or bow.
NETTED CAP kykas Originally of sprang or open-patterned plaiting of plied linen or cotton yarn, later of crochet.
NO-SHAFT LOOM staklės be nyčių Any loom without proper shedding motion. The shed in such a loom is opened either with fingers, heddlestick, rigid heddle or half-heddles.
NO-TABBY WEAVE bedvinytis Any weave which requires tabby binder, but woven without it.
OBLIQUE BRAIDING or OBLIQUE PLAITING įžambus pynimas In oblique braiding each element simply passes under or over elements that cross its path. Oblique twill interlacing passes over and under more than one element at the time.
SIX-PARTS, SIX PATTERN BLOCKS šešių dalių Six blocks of 4 shafts each would require 24 shafts on the loom.
OPEN WEAVE CLOTH reti audiniai, also ažūrinis audeklas, kiauraraštis, ryškė, tinklines
OPEN WEAVE kiauraraštis A woven cloth with spaces between areas of warp and weft threads.
OPEN WEAVE or PLAITING kiauraraštis audimas arba pynimas A woven cloth with spaces between areas of warp and weft yarns. Open plaiting, a widely used variation of the interlinking technique, is effected by the addition of one or more twists to the link.
OPEN WORK kiauraraštis, ažūrinis audeklas, reti audiniai, ryškė tinklinės,

audeklo raštas, kuris susidaro iš kiaurumų

Cloth with openings made by one of several techniques including lace weave, leno, gauze, sprang, plaiting, openwork embroidery or cut thread work.
ORNAMENTAL CLOTH mitukas, gūnia Ornamented cloth or covering for a saddle cloth.
OVERCOAT WITH A LINING pamuštinis Outer garment with lining.

laisvas, lumstinis audimas, parinktinis.

While weaving a plain background a pattern is overlaid in small areas with a separate yarn.
OVERLAY PATTERNED SASH kaišytinė Typical of the Dzūkija region.
OVERSHOT dimai, dimas Float weave with supplementary weft patterning as in overshot, using 4 or 8 shafts.
OVERSHOT FABRIC diminis audimas Fabric with weft float or overshot patterning.
OVERSHOT WEAVE, also FLOAT dimai, pluoštiniai Overshot is four-shaft weaving. The pattern is produced by floats on a plain tabby ground. Weft yarns that skip over groups of warp threads.
PANEL pala A cloth or width of fabric.
PATTERN raštas A combination of colours and weaving techniques creating a design in woven cloth.
PATTERN VARIATIONS raštų įvairumas Different patterns obtained from the same threading draft.
PATTERN WEAVING rašto audimas Every weave has a certain pattern, but this term is reserved for large and elaborate patterns.
PATTERN WEFT rašto ataudas Yarns woven across warp threads for picking or overlaying patterns.
PEARL COTTON perliniai siūlai Loosely twisted two-ply mercerized cotton.
PICK also ROW, SHOT šuvis, vienkartinis ataudas One line of weft put through the warp.
PICK-UP WEAVE, FINGER WEAVING, FREE WEAVE rinktinis audimas, rinktiniais raštais audimas A technique that forms patterns in weaving by picking up warp threads by hand, flat stick or secondary heddles.
PICK-UP STICK rinkinio skala Flat stick for making hand-controlled patterns to pick up warp threads when making pick-up patterns.
PICK-UP WEAVE lumstinis audimas, balana, kaišytinis, laisvas, parinktinis
PICK-UP WEAVE,  FINGER WEAVE, FREE WEAVE rinktiniais raštais audimas A technique that forms patterns in weaving by picking up warp threads by hand, flat stick or secondary heddles.
PILE CARPETS kilpiniai
PLAIN THREADING, STRAIGHT DRAW eilinis vėrimas The simplest diagonal threading which can be made on any number of shafts or harnesses.
PLAIN WEAVE also TABBY WEAVE drobinis, dvinytis, dvinytiškas audimas Simplest and commonest structure in weaving. Each weft passes over and then under every warp end,  making a solid background.
PLAITING pynimas Oblique twill interlacing of the over and under of two fibres to form a fabric.
PLEAT (verb) klostyti
PLY šaka  The number of strands twisted together to form a thread or yarn.
PLYING susukimas The action of twisting together several single filaments into yarn.
PRIMITIVE LOOM primityvios staklės A hand loom made of sticks or bars and usually requiring manipulation of heddles by hand.
PUTTEE autas A strip of cloth wound around the leg from ankle to knee.
RADDLE rietka A bar with pegs for spreading the warp evenly during beaming.
RAISED or SCULPTURED PATTERN iškilus raštas A pattern that rises above the background when using softer and heavier yarn for the design.
RECTANGULAR CLOTH keturka Used to widen the sleeves at the underarm.
RED COTTON žičkas (pl. žičkai) Red non-fading single or 2-ply cotton yarn often used in the weaving of rinktinė pattern bands to decorate holiday skirts. Also used in Žemaitija on aprons and to decorate the ends of  wimples, towels and pillow cases.
RED WOVEN COTTON PATTERN žičkinis audimas Cloth woven with pattern of red cotton thread.
REED skietas In the loom, the beater spaces the warps and presses the weft into place. Originally made of split reeds, now usually made of metal.
REP WEAVE ripsinis audimas A closely set warp covering the weft, called warp faced rep weave; an open set warp will be concealed by the weft, called weft faced rep. This weave produces a corded surface.
RETTING mirkymas Soaking, immersion of flax in water to separate straw from fibre with controlled rotting.
RIB OR RIBBED WEAVE ruožuotas audimas, ataudų  paviršius, metmenų paviršdėstymas A derivative or extension of plain weave.
RIGID-HEDDLE, HEDDLE REED nytinis skietelis A heddle frame carved from one piece of wood with alternate holes or eyes and vertical slits. A slot and hole shedding device for a simple loom.
RIPPLING braukimas, karšimas Separating flax seeds from the stalks.
ROLAG sukarštų vilnų kuodelis Carded short-fiber wool ready for spinning a woolen yarn.
RUNNER (for floor or table), PATH takas
SASH juosta A wide or narrow, long belt intricately patterned and worn with the national costume.
SASH BEATER medinis peilis, plaktuvėlis A wooden knife used to press weft in place, especially on sash weaving.
SASH LOOM juostų staklelės A narrow small loom with a number of heddles.
SATIN WEAVE atlasas A structure with a smooth face.
SCALLOPED GATHERING špygutė A special characteristic of some Lithuanian national dress blouses and aprons.
SCUTCHING brukimas Removing the woody shives clinging to the flax fiber.
SEAM siūlė Joining two edges of cloth together.
SEAM BINDING raištis, rėželis
SELVAGE, WARP EDGE audeklo pakraštys, pakraštys, kraštas The edge of a woven fabric finished so that it will not unravel.
SETT lšdestymas metmenų Number of warp ends per cm on frame or upright loom.
SETT, EPI metmenų  išdėstymas, išdėstymas metmenų  (siūlų į 1″ skietė) The spacing of warp ends in the cloth, indicated by number of ends per inch (epi) or ends per centimeter (ends/cm).
SHAFT nytys A wooden frame which holds a number of heddles.
SHAFT HARNESS, HEDDLE-FRAME nytis A wooden frame which holds a number of heddles. Four or eight shafts are common on looms in Lithuania.
SHAFT LIFTER nytkėlė Used in mechanized looms; draw looms or Jacquard looms.
SHAWL skepeta Square-shaped cloth of varying size.
SHED žiotys Wedge-shaped opening created when alternate warps are raised and lowered. The space through which the shuttle travels to lay in the weft.
SHED ROD riestuvukas A round rod used when sashes are woven with the aid of a backstrap or on a frame.
SHED ROLL riestuvukas Round rod used when sashes are woven with the aid of a backstrap or on a frame.
SHED STICK žiočių skala Lath stick used behind the long-eyed heddles to open and hold the supplementary pattern sheds for the pattern yarn. Also a flat splinter for the shed in backstrap weave, or in stick-weave.
SHIRTS marškiniai Woven of linen, bleached white. The panels for sleeves are often woven with žičkai or other coloured pattern yams, sometimes embroidered elaborately.
SHORT JACKET striukė A man’s loose-fitting waist length jacket, made from matted woolen cloth with decoration on the cuffs, bottom, front and stiff collar, similar to the woman’s trumpinukė.
SHOULDER TABS perpetėliai
SHUTTLE magstė Used to insert the weft threads.
SHUTTLE also STICK SHUTTLE, FLAT SHUTTLE, BOAT SHUTTLE šaudyklė, magstė A stick shuttle consisting of two pointed ends around which weft yarns are wound. Tool for carrying or holding weft yarn during weaving.
SILK šilkas
SIMPLE PICK-UP also STICK WEAVE parinktinis audimas Warps for pattern picked up on a stick behind the shafts and used alternately for pick-up or overlay technique.
SIZING šliktuoti A glue to strengthen warp yarns.
SKIP šuolis, peršokimas See FLOAT
SKIRT sijonas Woven either in one panel and joined to the waistband at the selvage edge or woven of several panels joined together and worn with the warp vertical; varies by region and era.
SLIPPERS čempės Knitted or crocheted slippers from coarse linen, tow or hemp.
SOCKS kojinės
SOLELESS LEATHER SHOES naginės Footwear made of a single piece of ox hide.
SPACE-DYED YARN tarpsniais dažyti siūlai A skein of yarn dyed at intervals, as in ikat, used in narrow stripes to add interest.
SPINDLE verpstukas, verpstė The ancient spinning stick that aids inserting twist into and holding the spun yarn.
SPINDLE WHORL smagratis Disk or sphere on a hand spindle that provides the weight for momentum needed to keep the spindle spinning.
SPINNING verpimas Action of twisting fibres into yarn.
SPINNING WHEEL verpimo ratelis, verptuvas A wheel-driven spindle for spinning yarn.
SPOOL, BOBBIN ritė, šeiva, špūlė
SPRANG or MESH-WORK tinklinis pynimas, ažūrinis audeklas, kiauraraštis, reti audiniai, ryškė Knotless netting in which the adjacent yarns interlink, interlace or intertwine with each other instead of with a weft.
SPUN YARN suverptos gijos Any yarn which goes through the process of spinning. The warp yarn must be firm, but the weft yarn may be loosely twisted.
STAR, STARLET žvaigždė, žvaigždutė A component of a larger pattern or small motif.
STICK-WEAVE parinktinis, balana, kaišytinis, laisvas, lumstinis audimas, rinktinis Pattern shed is opened with a flat stick behind the shafts and used alternately with tabby shed for pick up and overlay technique.
STITCH dygsnis
STOLE drobulė, panuometis Oblong shawl-like apparel worn over the shoulders by women.
STRICT strička A hank of flax line for spinning.
STRING HEDDLE siūlinė nytis Heddle made of strong yarn; in ancient time only of waxed linen yarn.
STRIP (BETWEEN TWO PANELS OF LINEN) perdrobulė A narrow strip of cloth or band joining two woven panels of a cloth.
STRIPE dryžis Lengthwise or vertical line produced by coloured yarns at the edges of sashes.
SULPHURIC ACID sieros rūgštis A very corrosive acid used to make the acid dye bath in synthetic dyeing.
SUPPLEMENTARY WEFTS papildomi ataudai Extra wefts for fringes, tassels, or patterns.
SYNTHETIC DYES sintetiniai dažai Synthetic organic compounds derived entirely from coal tar, and originally called aniline dyes because they were specifically derived from aniline.



dugnasdrobinis audimas
The same as plain weave; a binder for patterned weaving.

Two-shaft threading.

Background for pattern weave.

Plain weave.

TABLE LOOM stalinės staklės A small and narrow loom operated by hand.
TABLECLOTH staltiesė
TABLET or CARD WEAVING vytinis, lentelinis audimas A warp-face technique in which the weft thread is visible only on the edges.
TAKE APART (verb) a piece of cloth išardyti To analyze the weave.
TANNIN taninas An astringent vegetable compound that is extracted from the bark of certain trees, with large quantities contained in the galls of oak. Used as a mordant in natural dyeing.
TASSELS pluoštiniai kutai Several fringes grouped together.
TASSELS (at the bottom of a skirt or apron) šepetėlis, kutai
TASSELS, FRINGES kutai A border on a finished article, of warp or weft, or attached separately from different yarn.
TEN-SHAFT DAMASK WEAVE dešimtnyčiai atlasiniai With 2 blocks of 5 shafts each.
TENSION įtempimas Tightness of warp threads.
TEXTILE audinys (pl. audiniai)
THREAD, YARN siūlas Thread is sometimes used instead of the word yarn; a single warp end, a single filling pick. In weaving terminology, a synonym for yarn.
THREADING DRAFT metmenų  suvėrimas The chart showing how to thread the warp on the loom.
THREADING WARP ENDS THROUGH THE HEDDLES suvėrimas Passing the warp ends through the heddle eyes.
THREE-PART or THREE-BLOCK WEAVING PATTERN trijų dalių If 4 shafts each, would require 12 shafts.
THRUMS atrėža Yarn residue from the warp after weaving.
TIE-DYE tarpuotas dažymas A dyeing technique in which yarn is tied tightly in certain areas so that dye cannot penetrate.
TIE-UP pakojų parišimas The sequence in which the shafts are attached to the treadle levers in a shaft loom.
TIE-UP OR TREADLES parišimas For shedding control on the loom.
TIED LITHUANIAN “Little paths”



pervara, pervarai, pervaros Created by regular tie downs. A fabric su pervarais has “little paths” where the supplementary pattern weft is bound or stitched to the ground weave, every 4th, 6th, 8th, or 10th warp end, producing warp-wise lines in both the pattern and ground areas. Large blocks of pattern can be woven because of the regular tie-downs in this float weave. This structure is sometimes referred to as “tied Lithuanian” in American literature.
TOW pakulos, pašukos Poorer quality of linen, existing before the first process of hackling. (Second grade short flax; a reject of hackling.)
TREADLES pakojos Pedals used to raise or lower harnesses on looms.
TREADLING numynimas The order in which the treadles or pedals are depressed during weaving.
TREADLING DRAFT pakojų numynimas Shows the order in which the treadles are to be pressed.
TRI-SHAFT trinytis Woven with three shafts such as a 2-1-1 twill.
TURKEY RED rusvai raudona The dye derived from madder, the brightest and most lasting colour.
TWILL ruoželinis, ruoželinis audimas,ruoželinis ruoželis A weave in which warp and weft threads pass over each other in units of two or three to form a diagonal pattern. In plaiting, oblique twill interlacing.
TWIST susukimas The direction in which a yarn is twisted in spinning or plying.
TWO-PART dviejų dalių Two part, two-block weaving threading
TYRIAN PURPLE also ROYAL PURPLE purpurinė spalva A very early dye obtained from a shellfish of the Mediterranean and exported by Tyre to other countries.
UNSPUN FIBERS plaušai also pluoštas.
UPRIGHT WHEEL stačias verpimo ratelis A spinning wheel of the plyer type in which the wheel and spindle are in vertical alignment.
VARIEGATED skaistgija Yarn in which the colour varies.
VEGETABLE DYES augaliniai dažai Dyes from plant sources.
VEGETABLE FIBRES augaliniai plaušai Natural fibres, largely cellulose in composition, such as linen, cotton, and other bast fibres.
VEIL, HEAD SHAWL galvaraištis Short or long rectangular cloth of light wool, linen, or cotton, often fringed and ornamented, draped over the head and shoulders.
VEST, BODICE liemenė, kiklikas A woman’s sleeveless, tight-fitting garment or vest, extending to the waist or below the waist.
WAISTCOAT liemenė A man’s loose-fitting garment, extending to the waist or below the waist.
WARP metmuo (pl. metmenys) The lengthwise threads tensioned on the loom for weaving. The threads running lengthwise in backstrap weaving, in a loom or on frames, into which the weft is woven.
WARP BEAM metmenų volas, velenas, riestuvas A roller at the back of loom that anchors and stores the warp for weaving. The roller that holds the unwoven warp under tension on the loom.
WARP END metmens galas
WARP-FACED metmenų paviršius, metmenų paviršdėstymas, ataudų  paviršius, ruožuotas audimas Any sash or cloth in which the weft is completely covered by the warp threads.
WARP FRINGE metmenų kutai Ends of warp left unwoven when the sash, belt or band is completed.
WARP PROTECTORS metmenų apsaugojimai Braiding, plaiting, knotting, wrapping, or other treatment of the warp fringe to keep it from tangling or unravelling.
WARP or WIND (verbs) apmesti To arrange threads so that they run the long way of a fabric and cross the weft.
WARPING BOARD metmenų apmetimo lenta, lenta metmenų apmetimui A board or frame with pegs on which a warp is wound to measure out the length.
WARPING MILL mestuvai A revolving frame with pegs top and bottom, on which warps are made and guided from top to bottom and back again.
WARPING or WINDING metimas, apmetimas Dressing the loom with lengthwise threads.
WARPING PADDLE metamoji lentelė, klebatai, kryjeliai, reketukai A hand-tool shaped like a paddle with eight to twelve holes through which ends are threaded, facilitating the winding of he warp.
WARPING PEGS rageliai Sometimes wall-mounted “little horns”, on which the warp is wound.
WEAVE WITHOUT TABBY bedvinytis One normally requiring a plain weave binder, but woven without it.
WEAVER’S KNOT audėjos mazgas A knot used by weavers to join two ends with a minimum-sized knot so that it can easily pass through the heddles and reed.
WEAVING audimas
WEAVING DRAFT audimo brėžinys The draft that indicate the weaving pattern.
WEB audeklas The part of weaving that has become cloth.
WEFT also WOOF, SHOOT ataudas (pl. ataudai) The yarns carried by the shuttle and woven crosswise into the warp to form the cloth.
WEFT-FACED ataudų  paviršius,  metmenų  paviršdėštymas, ruožuotas audimas  A cloth in which the warp is covered by weft yarn.
WHITE LINEN SHAWLS panuomečiai, drobulės Plain, fine cloth worn over the shoulders.
WIMPLE nuometas, palmetis A long rectangle of fine linen cloth draped to form a woman’s head covering; use retained up to the 20th century in the Aukštaitija region.
WINDOW CURTAINS langų užuolaidos, drapiruotė Draperies.
WOOL vilna Any fibre of animal origin used for making yarns, particularly from sheep.
WOOL CLOTH gelumbė
WOOL YARN, WOOLEN YARN vilnonis siūlas, vilnonė gija Rolag. Yarn spun from rolags of carded wool.
WORSTED šukuotų vilnų suktos gijos Yarn spun and twisted from the longest fibres of the fleece that have all been combed parallel to each other.
YARN gija Plant, animal, or artificial fibres spun into a continuous thread.
YOKE OF SHIRT, SHOULDER TABS papetė, perpetė Often decorated with stick-weave pattern.
ZEPHYR skaisgijos Fine, soft, bright and light, 4-ply woolen yarn.